In mathematics, the exponentiation operation is defined for every real number a and integer exponent b. The result of raising a to the power b is written as a^b (read “a to the power b”), or less commonly as anb, an^b, or an-1.

For example, if a=5 and b=3, then 5^3 = 125. Exponentiation can be applied to complex numbers as well. For instance, 3i raised to the power of 6 is equal toi^6 = -1 + 0i + 0i^2 + 0i^4 + 1 + 0i^6

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In mathematics and computer programming, the exponentiation operator (or power operator) is a mathematical symbol representing the operation of exponentiation. The most common symbols are or

For example, 2 is the second power of 2, which equals 22 in binary notation (the exponent 2 is 1, so the base 2 is raised to the second power). Similarly, (2)3 = 23 = 8 (the exponent 3 is 1, so the base 2 is raised to the third power). In general:

In computer science and electronic engineering, an exponentiation circuit or logarithmic amplifier is an electronic circuit that provides exponential amplification of an input signal. It takes an input voltage – typically a voltage between zero and one volt – and outputs an amplified version of this voltage scaled by some positive number greater than one.

The simplest form of such a circuit uses a single transistor with two current sources connected in series along its collector-emitter path; this arrangement was used in early integrated circuits such as the 7400 series logic gate.

More complex forms include multiple transistors or bipolar junction transistors (BJTs), each arranged to provide more current than any single transistor could provide alone.

Last modified: October 12, 2022